Monday, December 13, 2010

Enjoy your life & serve poor

सही कहा है काम ऐसा करो जो आप को भी ख़ुशी दे और दुसरो को भी ख़ुशी दे .
गरीबों की सेवा ही असली सेवा है

Sunday, November 28, 2010

BOWEL MOVEMENT - some informations


Question #1: How long does it take you to have a bowel movement?

Less than 60 seconds
More than two minutes
Answer: Healthy bowel movements happen within seconds of sitting on the toilet. Stool should easily come out without straining, grunting, or any discomfort. It should have the consistency of toothpaste. If you have time to read a newspaper while sitting on the toilet—you probably have a problem with constipation or poor bowel health.

Question #2: Does your stool sink immediately?

Answer: Fast sinking stool is a sign of a fiber deficiency in your diet. Healthy stool should slowly descend to the bottom of the toilet bowl. If you have a "fast sinker"—add more fiber-rich foods to you diet. These include fruits, vegetables, nuts, and whole grains.
If your stool sticks to the sides of the toilet or leaves "streak marks"—that's a sign of excess fat in your stool. This can be caused by a poor diet or a sluggish liver.

Question #3: What is the shape of your stool?

Long like a banana
Round, hard pellets
Thin, pencil–shaped
Answer: Healthy stool averages about four to six inches long and shaped like a banana or a torpedo.
Very narrow, pencil-shaped stool is a sign your colon walls are impacted or you have polyps or growth on the inside of your colon or rectum. This causes the stool to squeeze to get through. Stress can also create narrow stool.

Hard, round, or pellet-shaped stool is a possible sign of poor liver function, lack of exercise, dehydration, or constipation.

Question #4: Is your stool accompanied by foul odor?

Answer: Gas or odor is a sign of a bacterial imbalance in your intestinal flora. The "bad" bacteria release foul-smelling gases and toxins that can cramp your colon and create embarrassing odors.
You can eliminate this odor by removing debris and encrusted feces from the walls of your intestines and restoring the balance in your intestinal flora.

Question #5: What color is your stool?

Bright red

Answer: According the Mayo Clinic research, all shades of brown and even green are considered normal stool colors. And the foods you eat can affect the color of your stool. For example, beets, tomato juice, blueberries, popsicles, and green leafy vegetables can affect your stool color. However, a distinct change in stool color can be a warning sign for health problems.
Yellow-colored stool indicates your food is moving too quickly through your digestive tract—as in the case of diarrhea. If stool is greasy or foul-smelling, it may indicate excess fat caused by malabsorption of nutrients.

Green-colored stool means your food isn't properly being processed through your intestines. As a result, bile isn't broken down—and gives your stool that green color. Green stool can also mean you're eating too much sugar, and not enough grains or salt.
Gray or ashy colored stool indicates undigested fats or heavy use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs that contain aluminum hydroxide. It can also indicate a lack of bile in stool that may be caused by a bile duct obstruction or a liver problem.
Black stool is a serious warning sign for bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract—possibly the stomach.

Bright red stool may indicate bleeding in the lower intestinal tract—possibly the large intestine or rectum. Hemorrhoids are usually the source of the bleeding.

Question #6: Do you pass gas while you're having a bowel movement
or have you noticed air or bubbles in your stool?

Answer:Air or bubbles in stool can indicate an intestinal imbalance. Gas producing bacteria may be overgrowing and competing with the healthier flora in your gut.
Please know this: A normal bowel movement happens within 60 seconds of sitting on the toilet. There should be no straining, pain, bleeding or foul odor accompanied with your bowel movements. And wiping afterwards should be easy and simple—using just one or two pieces of toilet paper! (With a little water if u like)

Saturday, November 20, 2010

Exercise and Diabetes

"Those who think they have no time for bodily exercise will sooner or later have to find time for illness" - this famous quote by Edward Stanley is apt for every one including people with diabetes. The role of exercise in the prevention and management of diabetes and its complications is very significant. Exercise is one of the four pillars of diabetes management along with diet, medication, and monitoring. Exercise is anything that gets one moving and active. To make exercise a part of one's life one may not need to join a gym or have a personal trainer. Small steps can make big difference in life. Adding 10,000 extra steps (30 minutes of regular exercise) each day' can really help. Exercise is the simplest. and non expensive habit which can provide multiple benefits.

Why is Exercise very important for people with Diabetes?

Exercise increases fitness and physical working capacity and improves sense of well being. Apart from this, people with Diabetes get several other benefits from regular exercise, which include:

• Exercise helps reduce high, blood glucose by improving the body's use of insulin.

• Exercise also helps in reducing weight and helps in the loss of body fat.

• Exercise helps to protect against heart diseases by lowering 'bad' LDL cholesterol and
increasing 'good' HDL cholesterol.

• Exercise helps in lowering of blood pressure.

• Exercise also help's in relieving stress, encourages relaxation, and improves your mood.

When you start an exercise program, go slowly. Gradually increase the intensity and length of your workout as you get more fit. Benefits of exercise' are always much more than risk of exercise. To minimize potential risks, people with diabetes need to understand and take steps to prevent problems before they occur. Never start a new exercise routine without talking to your doctor.

Exercise checklist for people who have diabetes

Talk to your doctor if you have any of these symptoms or conditions:
• If your blood glucose levels are constantly high over 250 mg/dl.
• If you have any symptoms of cardiovascular problems.
• If you have any evidence of retinopathy, neuropathy or nephropathy.
• Any other ongoing health problems that might limit your ability to exercise
Do not exercise when your sugars are very high or low.

Do not exercise when you have ketones in urine (Type 1 Diabetes)
Have a snack handy in case your blood sugar level drops too low.
Check your feet for blisters or sores before and after exercising.
Wear the proper shoes and socks that fit well and are comfortable.
Drink plenty of water before, during and after exercising.
Warm up before exercising and cool down afterward.
Have diabetes identification card and your mobile with you while going outside- for exercise, even in your own neighborhood.

Stop exercising, if you experience any warning signs, such as severe shortness of breath, dizziness or chest pain. Hypoglycemia can occur during exercise or during the next 12 hours that follow. So, it is advisable to check sugar levels more frequently when you start any new exercise programme. Following a regular routine of exercising, eating your meals, and taking your medicines at the same time each day helps in maintaining good sugar levels and minimize any kind of risks.

Types of Exercises

Aerobic exercise is recommended by most doctors. Do not confuse aerobic exercise with aerobics. Examples of aerobic exercise include walking, jogging, dance or bicycling. Aerobic exercises make you breathe more deeply and make your heart work harder. If you have problems with the nerves in your feet or legs, your doctor may want you to do a type of exercise that won't put too much stress on your feet like swimming, bicycling, rowing or chair exercises.

Strength training, Done several times a week, helps build strong bones and muscles. With more muscle, you burn more calories, even at rest. Increased muscle mass and regular emptying of these muscle stores improves the body's glucose processing, a factor crucial in preventing and managing type 2 diabetes.

Flexibility exercises, also called stretching, help keep your joints flexible and reduce your chances of injury during other activities. Gentle stretching for 5 to 10 minutes helps your body warm up and get ready for aerobic activities. Yoga is kind of flexibility and relaxation exercise. Yoga and pranayama are very good forms of exercise, providing flexibility and relaxation, but some form of aerobic exercise along with yoga provides maximum benefit for people with Diabetes.

In addition to formal exercise, there are many opportunities to be active throughout the day. The more you move around, the more energy you'll have. These strategies can help you increase your activity level:

Walk instead of drive whenever possible.
Take the stairs instead of the elevator.
Work in the garden, play with your child, or do some house cleaning every day.
Park your car farther away and walk the rest of the way to your destination.

Although exercise is very essential for people with diabetes, it cannot replace the requirement of medicine. By incorporating a healthy diet, proper medication, and especially regular exercise into your lifestyle, you can live each day to the fullest. Whatever you choose, whichever exercise is right for you, make sure it's something you enjoy and make it a lifetime commitment.

Thursday, November 11, 2010

Tea - the medical benefits

Engelbert Kaemfer, a German doctor,botanist and polymath, who was employed by the Dutch East India Company and lived in Japan in the late seventeenth century, was one of those who were most effective in spreading an understanding of tea to the West. In his great history of Japanese civilisation he described the history, politics, crafts, government and economy with enormous care. At the end of the volumes he included detailed appendices on several important subjects, including tea. Likewise, missionaries, diplomats and others who visited and wrote about China described the wonderful Chinese plant that seemed to cure so many different diseases.

The records of the use of tea suggest that it first arrived at Amsterdam in 1610, in France in the 1630s and in England in 1657. It was 'brewed, kept in a cask, then drawn and warmed up for customers as they asked for it'. Milk was probably not added at this stage. As with many new technologies, in fact, it was at first assimilated into techniques already in use, being treated as a kind of warmed-up beer, still served from a barrel.

In the 1660s it was advertised as That excellent and by all Physicians approved, China drink, called by the Chineans, Tcha, by other Nations Tay or Tee, and was sold at the Sultans Head near the Royal Exchange. The first overview of its medical effects and virtues was given in the tea broadsheet by 'I'homas Garway, published in 1657 to advertise the first public sale of tea in Garway’s coffee house. A list of the medical benefits of tea, similar to those given by Garway, was transcribed from a Chinese source in 1686 by T. Povey, a Member of Parliament.

1. It purifies the Bloud of that which is grosse and heavy.
2. It Vanquisheth heavy Dreames.
3. It Easeth the brain of heavy Damps.
4. Easeth and cureth giddinesse and Paines in the Heade.
5. Prevents the Dropsie.
6. Drieth Moist humours in the Head.
7. Consumes Rawnesse.
8. Opens Obstructions.
9. Cleares the Sight.
10. Clenseth and Purifieth adults humours and a hot Liver.
11. Purifieth defects of the Bladder and Kiddneys.
12. Vanquisheth Superfluous Sleep.
13. Drives away dissines, makes one Nimble and Valient.
14. Encourageth the heart and Drives away feare.
15. Drives away all Paines of the Collick which proceed from Wind.
16. Strengthens the Inward parts and Prevents Consumptions.
17. Strengthens the Memory.
18. Sharpens the Will and Quickens the Understanding.
19. Purgeth Safely the Gaul.
20. Strengthens the use of due benevolence.

As tea began to be introduced into Europe the argument about its virtues and possible dangers increased. In Holland it was recommended by physicians like Johannes van Helmont as a restorative against loss of body fluids. Dr Nikokas Dorx (1593-1674) wrote a widely read eulogy on tea in his Observationes Medicae under the name ‘Nikolas Tulp”.

Nothing is comparable to this plant. Those who use it are for that reason, alone, exempt from all maladies and reach an extreme old age. Not only does it procure great vigour for their bodies, but also it preserves them from gravel and gallstones, headaches, colds, ophthalmia, catarrh, asthma, sluggishness of the stomach and intestinal troubles. It has the additional merit of preventing sleep and facilitating vigils, which makes it a great help to persons desiring to spend their nights writing or meditating."

One of the most extended treatments was by the Dutch physician Cornelis Bontekoe (alias Cornelis Dekker) who published a Tractaat on the excellence of tea, coffee and chocolate in 1679. Bontekoe held green tea of Bohea in such high esteem that in one of his works he seriously recommended the sick to take 50, 60, up to 100 cups without stopping, a feat he had accomplished himself in one morning. He had suffered cruelly from stones, and believed that he had been cured by the copious use he made of the Chinese drink. He defended it strongly against those who said it caused convulsions and epilepsy; on the contrary, he attributed to it all sorts of therapeutic virtues. Bontekoe also recommended drinking two glasses of strong tea before an attack of malaria and a number of glasses afterwards.

A number of British doctors also investigated its properties. Thomas Trotter in his View of the Nervous Temperament (1807) argued that tea, as well as other commodities, like coffee and tobacco, 'had once been used as medicines, but had been reduced to necessities'." Thomas Short in his Dissertation upon Tea of 1730 reported various experiments that showed that when tea was added to blood, it separated the 'blood serum'. It furthermore helped to preserve meat from becoming rotten. He listed the diseases for which it was a remedy, including diseases of the head, thickness of the blood, diseases of the eye, ulcers, gout, the stone, obstructions of the bowels and many others. In 1772 Dr Lettsom wrote a Natural History of the Tea-Tree, with Observations on the Medical Qualities of Tea along the same lines. From the experiments he concluded that 'It is evident from these experiments, that both green and bohea Tea possess an antiseptic and astringent.

Tea spread fairly slowly at first in Britain, largely because of the cost. It was a luxury item. Famously Mrs Pepys drank it, as Pepys recorded in his Diary on 25 September 1660; she took it partly for medicinal reasons as it was thought that it would be good for her cough. When it first reached the London market it was sold for the remarkable price of £3 10s a pound. Then the price dropped to about £2 in nine or ten years, when it became available in every coffee house. Yet it remained a luxury drink throughout the seventeenth century and into the early eighteenth.

The great surge in tea importation and the drop in its cost occurred from the 1730s onwards, soon after the direct clipper trade to China was opened.

Wednesday, October 13, 2010


What is Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis mean 'Porous Bone'.

This happens when your bone loses too much calcium and become weak. This is very hard to detect and is usually discovered only after a fracture occurs, or if person shows reduced height or a humping of the back, or suffers low back pain.

A person with osteoporosis has bones that are brittle and fragile. These fragile bones can break very easily with a simple slip or fall, or even with no injury at all.

Both men and women can suffer from osteoporosis, but it is most common in women after menopause (when the monthly period ends).

How common is Osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis is a common problem in India.

• 1 out of 8 males and l out of 3 females in India suffers from osteoporosis, making India one of the largest affected countries in the world.

• Expert groups peg the number of osteoporosis patients at approximately 26 million (2003 figures) with the numbers projected to increase to 36 million by 2013.

• Two points worth noting about osteoporosis in India - the high incidence among men and the lower age of peak incidence compared to Western countries.

• The incidence of hip fracture is 1 woman to 1 man in India.

• In most Western countries, while the peak incidence of osteoporosis occurs at about 70-86 years of age, in India it may afflict those 10-20 years younger, at age 50-60.

What causes Osteoporosis?

The bone is a living tissue. When we are young, any loss of bone is easily replaced. At around the age of 30, our bones are at their strongest. However, as we age, less bone is made and more bone is lost. After menopause your body's supply of estrogen decreases and the rate of bone loss increases even further. This is why postmenopausal women are more likely to suffer from osteoporosis. There are also many other factors that contribute to bone loss such as illnesses, medications and lifestyle choices.
Signs & Symptoms of Osteoporosis

Sometimes nothing happens. Osteoporosis can be a silent disease. This is where the danger lies. Most people do not know they have osteoporosis until it is too late. Their bones become so fragile that even the smallest amount of stress can cause a break or fracture.

The bones in your hip, wrist and spine are at greatest risk of breaking. If the bones in your upper back are fractured, your spine may curve to form a hump.

Osteoporosis may result in chronic pain, decrease your mobility and affect your quality of life. In severe cases, hip fractures due to osteoporosis may lead to death.

How much risk are you at?

All men and women could be at risk. Some are at a higher risk than others. The risk factors include:

• A previous non-violent fracture.

• Early menopause before age 45 years, whether natural or through surgery.

• A member of your immediate family who. Has osteoporosis.

• Being underweight or undernourished.

• Being frail due to long-term illness.

• Smoking.

• Drinking too much alcohol.

• Not exercising much or not being able to move for a long period of time.

• A diet that does not have enough calcium or vitamin D.

• Certain illnesses e.q rheumatoid arthritis.

• Certain medicines e.g. corticosteroids, thyroid medication.

Check if you have Osteoporosis?

The OSTA test helps you to find out if you are likely to get osteoporosis, but how do you know if you already have it? Osteoporosis does not usually show any symptoms or signs until the bones are so weak that a fracture occurs .

Osteoporosis can be easily detected through a painless procedure called dual- energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). This test measures the density or solid ness of the bones, known as the bone mineral density or BMD.
In general, the lower your BMD, the higher your risk of fracture. Your doctor can then advise you on what needs to be done.
BMD testing is especially important for people who have a number of risk factors for osteoporosis. Your family doctor will be able to arrange for this test to be done.

Can Osteoporosis be treated or prevented?

Yes, osteoporosis can be treated. There are medicines available that help strengthen bones and reduce the incidences of fractures.

However, the best way to deal with osteoporosis is to prevent it from happening in the first place. There are many things you can do to lower your chances of developing osteoporosis.

• If you have a number of risk factors and are quite likely to develop osteoporosis in the future, your doctor can prescribe medicines that will help prevent osteoporosis from developing.

How can Diet help?
• To build and keep bones strong, the food you eat must contain enough calcium and vitamin D.
• Calcium is found in dairy products such as milk and cheese which is lacking in the Indian diet.
• However, calcium alone. May not be enough to prevent bone loss and osteoporosis after menopause.

Minimum total daily calcium and vitamin D intake

Category Calcium Vitamin D

Male 11 – 18 years old 1,000 mg 4001U
Female 11 – 18 years old 800mg 4001U
All adults 19 – 65 years old 700mg 4001U
All adults above 65 years 700mg 8001U
Lactation1, 200mg 4001U

Prevention of Osteoporosis through active lifestyle

• Regular weight-bearing exercises are important throughout life. They are the best way to keep your bones strong and healthy.

• Exercises that increase muscle strength, improve flexibility and balance, build up endurance and co-ordination, will help prevent falls.

• Everyone should try to exercise regularly at least 3 times a week for 30-40 minutes each time. Some recommended exercises are brisk walking, low impact aerobics and tai chi.

• Always remember to do proper warming up and cooling down exercises before and after each exercise session.

Smoking &Alcohol.

• Do not smoke. Smoking causes many other diseases besides increasing your risk of osteoporosis.

• It is fine to drink some alcohol, but if you drink too much you may have a higher risk of osteoporosis.

Take care of your steps

We should take steps to reduce the occurrence of falls which may lead to bone injuries.

This is very important for elderly people who are likely to have weakened bones. Start with these steps:

• Always anchor rugs and carpets.

• All rooms should be well-lit.

• Hide all electrical and telephone cords to avoid tripping over them.

• A flashlight by your bed is helpful at night.

• Reduce spacing & check Alignment

Do check the batteries often.

• Stairways should have railings and non - slip surfaces.

• Grab bars and other aids, such as nightlights, are especially helpful in bathrooms.

• Use non-slip mats or adhesive strips in your tub or on your shower floor.

• Make sure chairs and couches are easy to get in and out of.

• For more advice, consult an occupational therapist.

Although exercise, calcium and vitamin D are important, they cannot totally stop bone loss after menopause.

Need to know

You can check your risk for osteoporosis with OSTA.

If you think you are at risk of developing osteoporosis, or if you think you may already have it, see your family doctor as soon as possible.

He or she can arrange for BMD testing, and give advice and medicines if needed.

Prevention is best - stop osteoporosis before it happens. There are effective medicines to treat osteoporosis.

If you are already taking medicines to treat osteoporosis but have questions or concerns about them, your doctor is the best person to talk to.

Saturday, October 09, 2010



1. Kidneys: The key functions
2. 10 Critical functions of Kidneys
3. Ways to keep your Kidneys healthy………
4. What happens when kidney fails
5. Detect Kidney Disease early
6. Symptoms of kidney disease
7. Kidney Diseases
8. Treatments of Kidney Diseases
9. Dialysis Methods
10. Kidney Transplantation


The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. The kidneys are sophisticated reprocessing machines. Everyday, a person's kidneys process about 200 quarts of blood to sift out about 2 quarts of waste products and extra water. The wastes and extra water become urine, which flows to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine until releasing it through urination.

Wastes in the blood come from the normal breakdown of active tissues, such as muscles, and from food. The body uses food for energy and self- repairs. After the body has taken what it needs from food, wastes are sent to the blood. If the kidneys did not remove them, these wastes would build up in the blood and damage the body.

The actual removal of wastes occurs in tiny units inside the kidneys called nephrons. Each kidney has about a million nephrons. In the nephron, a glomerulus, which is a tiny blood vessel, or capillary, intertwines with a tiny urine-collecting tube called a tubule. The glomerulus acts as a filtering unit, or sieve, and keeps normal proteins and cells in the bloodstream, allowing extra fluid and wastes to pass through. A complicated chemical exchange takes place, as waste materials and water leave the blood and enter the urinary system.

In addition to removing wastes, the kidneys release three important hormones:

• Erythropoietin, or EPO, which stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells.
• Renin, which regulates blood pressure.
• Calcitriol, the active form of D, which help to maintain calcium for bones and for normal chemical balance in body.


1. Filter 200 liters of blood a day, removing two liters of toxins, wastes and water

2. Regulate the body's water balance

3. Regulate blood pressure by controlling fluid levels and making the hormone that causes blood vessels to constrict

4. Support healthy bones & tissues by producing the active form of vitamin D

5. Produce the hormone that stimulates bone marrow to manufacture red blood cells.

6. Keep blood minerals in balance.

7. Keep electrolytes in balance .

8. Regulate blood acid levels.

9. Remove drugs from the blood.

10. Retrieve essential nutrients so that the body can reabsorb them.


Here are some simple changes in lifestyle which you can easily adopt:

1. Keep fit and active. This may sound like a clichi, keeping fit help to reduce your blood pressure and therefore reduces the risk of Chronic Kidney Disease. The concept "on the move for kidney health" is a world-wide collective march involving the public, celebrities and professionals moving across a public area by walking, running, cycling. Why not join them- by whatever means that you prefer.

2. Although many people may be aware that high blood pressure can lead to a stroke or heart attack, few know that it can also cause kidney damage. We should educate people to "Keep the Pressure Down", highlighting the importance of keeping blood pressure low, as it can be a key symptom and cause of Chronic Kidney Disease. If you already have high blood pressure to protect yourself from kidney disease monitor your blood pressure regularly, maintain a low fat, low salt diet and keep a healthy body weight

3. Do not smoke: Cigarette smoking slows the flow of blood to the kidneys. When less blood reaches the kidneys, it impairs their ability to function properly. Smoking also increases the risk of kidney cancer by about 50 percent.

4. Do not take over-the-counter pills on a regular basis: Common drugs such non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are known to cause kidney damage and disease if taken regularly. Such medications probably do not pose significant
danger if your kidneys are relatively healthy and you use them for emergencies only, but if you are dealing with chronic pain, such as arthritis, work with your doctor to find a way to control your pain without putting your kidneys at risk.

5. About half of those people who have diabetes develop early signs of kidney damage, so it is important for people with diabetes to have regular tests to check their kidney functions. It is important to keep control of blood sugar levels with the help of doctors or pharmacists.

6. Checking kidney function must be a high priority for people considered to be at risk of kidney disease. Early detection is essential and allows suitable treatment before kidney damage or deterioration manifests itself through other complications.

7. Keep your weight in check: This can help prevent diabetes, heart
disease and other conditions associated with chronic Kidney Disease.

8. Know your kidney function: If anyone in your family has suffered from Kidney disease, it is particularly important to get your kidney function checked.

It is important to encourage everyone to learn more about their amazing kidneys and to raise awareness of the fact that that kidney disease is common, harmful, but treatable.


Just one kidney, working at 20% capacity, can keep a person healthy. Below that level, you begin to feel tired or weak, and lose your appetite. This is because toxic wastes starts to build up in the blood, Fluid collects, causing tissue swelling, lung congestion and high blood pressure. To stay healthy, a method is needed to replace lost kidney function.


Kidney disease is often 'silent', causing few symptoms, especially in the early stages. If left unchecked the disease can progress or lead to kidney failure. It can severely impact quality of life and ultimately can cost lives. Very often it comes along with other health threatening conditions, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

If kidney disease is detected early, appropriate treatment can delay or even stop chronic kidney disease. It is easy to detect early signs of kidney problems by using simple tests performed by your General Practitioner.


• Frequent headache and urination.
• Itching.
• Poor appetite and fatigue.
• Burning sensation during urination.
• Nausea and vomiting.
• Swollen / numb hands or feet.
• Darkened skin.

Kidney disease is any disorder that affects how the kidneys function. Some of these disorders include:

• Diabetes.
• Hypertension.
• Nephritis
• Infection.
• Injury.
• Stones.


Treatment of kidney disease is complex and depends on the type of disease, the underlying cause and duration of the disease. It can be treated by:

1) Medicines: Healthy kidneys remove waste products of metabolism, but when kidneys' function diminishes, these go up in the blood, as indicated by raised creatinine levels. Early detection leads to early treatment, preventing it from advancing to more serious stages. Diabetes is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease, followed by hypertension. See your physician regularly and follow the prescribed drug treatment to control blood sugar levels and blood pressure. Treatments for conditions which can lead to kidney disease include numerous
prescription drugs and treatment protocols.
2) Dialysis: Kidney dialysis is a medical treatment used to filter out waste products from the blood. Dialysis treatment permits the patients to live relatively normal live within the limitations of their disease.


Peritoneal & Haemodialysis. Appropriate method is administered to the patient in consultation with medical professionals.

Peritonial Dialysis:
This form of dialysis occurs inside the body. It uses your peritoneal membrane (serous membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities) in the abdomen as the filter, For this treatment, a tube called a catheter is surgically placed through the wall of your abdomen.

Blood is pumped outside the body to an artificial kidney machine. The machine cleanses the blood and returns it to the body. Access to IV is made by fistula (permanent abnormal passageway between two organs in the body or between an organ and the
exterior of the body) or graft. A fistula provides access to blood vessels.


Transplantation is one of the solutions to kidney failure. During this operation, a healthy donated kidney is placed deep under your skin near your hip bone. In some cases, the non working kidneys may be removed to control infection or high blood pressure.

Treat your kidneys right, and they should look after you!

Friday, October 08, 2010

Safety Tips for Senior Citizen


Falls are the leading cause of injury in people 65 and older.

Falls can happen anytime and anyplace to people of any age, but most falls by people age 65 and older occur in the home during every day activities. However, many falls can be prevented. Here are some prevention tips.

• Provide enough light to clearly see steps.
• Keep stairs free of clutter.
• Cover stairs with tightly woven carpet or non slip treads.
• Install sturdy handrails on both sides of the stairway.

• Keep a night-light on in the bathroom.
• Use bathroom rugs with nonskid backing.
• Install handrails in the bathtub and toilet areas.
• Place a rubber mat or nonskid strips on the bathtub/shower floor.
• Leave the bathroom door unlocked, so it can be opened from both sides

• Avoid climbing and reaching for high shelves.
• Use a stable step stool with handrails.
• Arrange storage at counter level.
• Clean up spills as soon as they happen and don't wax floors.

Living Area
• Arrange furniture to provide an open path-way between rooms.
• Remove low tables, footrests and other items from the pathway.
• Keep electrical and telephone cords out of the pathway.

• Remove throw rugs, extension cords and other floor clutter.
• Install a bedroom night-light.
• Use a normal - height bed.
• Before leaving your bed, sit on the edge for a while to make sure you are not dizzy.

• Wear low heeled or flat shoes with nonskid soles.
• Tie shoes, with a fairly snug fit are preferred and keep laces tied.
• Avoid shoes with thick, heavy soles.

• Don't panic. Assess the situation and determine if you are hurt.
• Slide or crawl along the floor to the nearest couch or chair and try to get up.
• If you can't get up, call for help.

Wednesday, October 06, 2010

Darjeeling Historical & Heritage Buildings


Darjeeling long recognized as “Queen of the Himalayas” can also boast of a number of historical buildings, manifestations of the British Raj’s interest in this hill station.

In 1839 there were only ten huts and a hundred people in Darjeeling. But as the British realized its potential as an ideal summer retreat and health resort, things began to move fast. The Lt. General GA Lloyd recommended that a building project be undertaken to develop Darjeeling into a home away from home, complete with snow and mist.

Lord Napier of Royal Engineers laid out architectural plans and by 1843 Darjeeling flaunted thirty grand buildings. There was ‘Mount Pleasant’ the house of Lt General Llyod, ‘Bryan Stone’ where Sir Joseph Hooker lived, ‘Oak Lodge’, ‘Vernon Lodge’ etc. the Town Hall, which now hosts the present municipality of Darjeeling, was established in 1850.

The 19th century indeed saw hectic constructional and engineering activity in Darjeeling and some of the most beautiful heritage buildings date from that era. The Renaissance philosophy and Greek-Roman architectural designs dominated, skillfully adapted to local geographic and climatic conditions.

The public works department, formed in 1862, started constructing with new zeal. Among its best achievements were the Secretariat Building, Thorn Cottage, Raj Bhavan, Kutchery, Richmondhill, Rivershill, Old Kutchery Building, The Natural History Museum, Bloom Field Barrack, Eden Hospital Louis Jubilee Sanatorium, Dowhill and Victoria School.

Many of these buildings though recognized as heritage sites are still in use.

Take for example the Bengal Secretariat Building. It is easy to locate this three-storied building west of the Bandstand on the Chowk. It was erected in 1898 and houses the following offices: Ground floor – Offices of the chief secretary to the government, under secretary of political appointment departments and secretariat library. First Floor – offices of secretary of consulting architect to government and revenue department. Second Floor – offices of secretary and under secretary of financial and municipality department.

The Thorn Cottage, built in 1868, initially formed a meeting spot for the Planters Club. Later for a while it functioned as a PWD office. It now serves as staff quarters of various government departments.

Government College: Miss Roby’s School was built in the 19th century, just beyond the old cemetery on Lebong Cart Road. In 1904 the clewer sisters turned it into the Diocesan Girls High School. But in 1948 the Government took over this building for higher education. Presently it is a college known simply as Government College.

Government House: The site was granted to Edward Hepper around 1840. It then passed on to Brine and Martin, contractors, who sold it to Sir Thomas E Turton.

Turton built Solitaire on the site, which soon became one of the houses of the Maharaja of Cooch Behar. On 31 October 1877 the British Government purchased this building from the Maharaja.

And it subsequently functioned as the residence of successive governors of Bengal. It was renamed The Shrubbery in the summer of 1880. Many additions and alterations were made to the building during the tenure of each Governor. Sir Ashley Eden for example added a porch and tower. Sir George King (who had earlier given shape to the Royal Botanical Garden, Calcutta), artistically redesigned the garden in 1878. The Durbar Hall was built during the tenure of Sir C Elliott.

Sir Ashley Eden established Victoria Boys School in 1879 for the education of the children of government servants. Situated at an altitude 6000 ft, on a hundred acres plot.

Dowhill School was also established by Sir Ashley Eden in 1898. But this school was meant only for the daughters of persons of European descent and those employed in any branch of government service. There were 120 resident pupils on its roll when it started. Today it has some 207 residential girls and boys in the junior class and about 400 day-scholars.

LORETTO Covent established in 1846, is administered by the Sister of the Institute of Blessed Virgin Mary, a congregation of Catholic Sisters. It was founded for the education of Catholic students but today it extends its services to members of all communities, irrespective of caste or creed.

St. Joseph’s School was established in 1877, for Catholic boys by the Capuchin Fathers, in a bungalow called ‘Sunny Bank’ (probably close to what is known as Bishop’s House today).

In 1879 the school got a new building and was renamed St. Joseph’s Seminary under the Rectorship of Father Joseph Peacock assisted by five assistant-masters. This was presumably the predecessor of North Point. By 1881 the school was enlarged to a building measuring 150 X 40 ft, a very large structure for the Darjeeling of those days.

St. Paul’s School was established in 1864, for the education of the children of government staff. It is situated at an altitude of more than 6000 ft.

The Natural History Museum is a three-storied ferroconcrete structure (including basement). It was constructed in the year 1915. Lord Carmichael allotted funds for this building and the design was conceived by Crouch.

Windamere Hotel was originally a 19th century boarding house, built for bachelors and British and Scottish tea planters. It was converted into a hotel only in 1939.

A complete list of historical buildings in Darjeeling would be impossibly long but one can’t but mention a couple more. There is Park Hotel, which has now been converted in to St. Robert’s School, there is Bishop’s House, Loreto College etc. All of these replicate Scottish and English architectural styles. When travelers to England and Scotland see historical buildings like Winchester Castle, Clifton Terrace, Callendar House, Blackness Castle, Battle of Falkirk memorial etc they cannot but be reminded of the buildings they see everyday in Darjeeling.

Many historic buildings have also been destroyed in fires. It is certainly important to ensure fire protection to occupants of historic building but steps should be taken to protect the structure as well.

The Public Works Department (PWD) has made an effort to preserve historic architectural documents in a special museum. Documents, photographs, instruments, original plans, blue prints and other related materials are displayed here. They represent the cumulative engineering skill, sincerity and sacrifice of all those who have worked on this hilly terrain in the hundred years from Napier to John Chamber. The museum is located inside the PWD Inspection Bungalow, Darjeeling.

Monday, September 13, 2010

North Bengal will be benefitted

Today the Indian Railway Minister Mamta Banerjee visited Siliguri and annouced many new projects for North Bengal. North Bengal will get many benefits from Railways.

Friday, September 10, 2010

Over weight – the causes and the cure

Over weight – the causes and the cure

Over Weight is now a main issue of great concern in our day to day life. Whether child or adult or a retired person or old, every body now is concerned. It is of our concern in aged person as it is directly related to Diebetes, Hypertension(High BP), heart attack, Chest pain, Stroke and paralysis, Kidney Failure, clogging and blockage of Arteries, changes in vision, sedantry habits, addictions, beside arthritis, pain over heels and knee joint.

Another reason for this writing is the fact that notwithstanding the “magical guaranteed weight loss” as advertised as we regularly see in print or electronic media, internet or so called practitioners of different types like yoga, acupressure, reiki, physical educator, gyms and physical training centres, Exercise centres and instrument sellers and companies of different type of weight reducing machines and devices and ayurvedic, homeo and ingenious and allopathic centres are claiming and attracting every set of people and now senior Doctors are running a camp of Obesity reducing surgeries through laproscopy (Mini Hole surgeries )with a surest guarantee of melting down few KGS in few days. But is it so easy or so safe without any side effects ? There are no and I mean NO SHORT CUTS.

Why does one gain weight? This is a question the answer to which, each and everyone wants to know, because if we know the answer to this, very easily we can avoid the causes thereby avoiding weight gain.

But to take a common analogy that I give to patients’ weight gain is like a bank balance, there are only two ways to increase your bank balance (weight) either you earn more (increased intake) or spend less (decreased output).

But sadly I’m sure all of us agree it’s easier to gain weight (except for the lucky few who have genetics on their side), than increase your bank balance.


As you can see from the heading, it is not only increased intake, but also the intake of wrong kinds of food and improper intake, which also contributes to weight gain.

1.Overeating: Though most of us tend not to agree to it, it is often the most common cause for weight gain. Every time you have that extra spoonful, it adds up in the long run.

2. Fast food: Fast food is fast to make and convenient to eat can be eaten on the move but more often than not is full of fats/cheese & salt.

Anyone who has read science in school knows that fat has more calories (9Kcals/gm) as compared to protein (4Kcals/gm) or carbohydrates (4Kcals/gm). So, the more fats you eat the more calories you are putting in. Carbohydrates are easy to absorb and after your basic energy requirements are met, are converted to fat for storage.

Chips – a favourite amongst most is another common cause. An old saying for them, which holds very true, is “A minute on your lips & a lifetime on your hips”, hence avoid them. Increased salt intake causes more water retention in the body and hence is also an important factor for weight gain.

3.Improper timing: The time of a meal also is an important factor. Food should be eaten at least 2 hours before one goes to bed to allow digestion to occur properly.

4.Alcohol: Alcohol has often been blamed for gaining weight but the
gain in weight is more related to the increased snacking, which goes along with consumption of alcohol.

5.Fizzy Drinks: These are aerated drinks with empty calories, which are of no use and add up to the over all “Bank Balance of Calories”. Instead, substitute it with fresh fruits or fresh lime, which is much healthier but of course try and avoid excess salt or sugar in them.


This is now turning out to be an important part of the whole weight gain process, especially so in youngsters and children.

1.Sedentary lifestyles: Now with the comfort levels increasing, activity has reduced. We use the lifts instead of stairs, vacuum cleaners instead of brooms, cars instead of walking, etc. The amount of calories burnt per day is decreasing with more mental activity than physical.

Some amount of physical activity is needed daily. One can incorporate small things into the daily schedule to increase the output like taking the stairs instead of the lift, walking to the nearby store instead of driving, morning or evening walks, etc which do not take up too much of your time but help in spending those calories.

2. Children especially should have some regular physical activity in their daily schedule or we are going to be waking up to a generation of overweight youngsters. Real games instead of Video Games, fruits instead of chips or pizza & fruit juices instead of a fizzy drink should be the mantra for the kids.


There are a few medical conditions that can be a cause for weight gain. These are usually hormonal imbalances.


A lot has been written and said about dieting and weight loss. Every other person is an expert in some sort of a diet. But a recent study has brought the proper perspective, as I have been saying for quite some time, it is not what kind of a diet you follow but the total intake versus the total output.

Crash Dieting is a not a way to loose weight at all. You might loose weight initially but you are loosing muscle bulk and replacing it with fat. So, what one needs is a proper balanced diet according to the work, he or she does, which has all the necessary nutrients.

Saturday, September 04, 2010

I want to inform the people of Siliguri that Dr D.K.Nakipuria is a good laprocopic surgeon & endoscopist doctor. He is a hard worker and always interested in learning something in the field of Medicine. He reads a lot of books, visits internet for web information, meet people and study their problems.

Dr Ranju Nakipuria, Wife of DKN, is a female decease specialists and senior doctor.

Both the husband and wife team work very hard and solve the patients' problem.

Dr DK Nakipuria's mobile no. 94341 43550

Wednesday, September 01, 2010

Kidney transplant in safe and experianced hands

Columbia Asia Referral Hospital, Yeshwanthpur, houses the Karnataka Nephrology and Transplant Institute (KANTI) -a premier institution in India for renal disorders and dialysis. It has a team of highly qualified doctors who have performed over 1700 renal transplants with success rates comparable to the best in the world. It attracts patients from across India and abroad.

Renal or kidney transplant involves placing a healthy kidney from a donor to take over the function of the two failed/dysfunctional kidneys. "The surgeon places the new kidney inside your lower abdomen and connects the artery and vein of the new kidney to your artery and vein. Your blood flows through the donated kidney, which makes urine, just like your own kidneys did when they were healthy," says Dr Sankaran Sundar, Chief Nephrologist, KANTI, Columbia Asia, Yeswanthpur. "The new kidney may start working rightaway or may take up to a few weeks to make urine. Unless your own kidneys are causing infection or high blood pressure, they are left in place and are not removed."

Any healthy person between age 20 and 65 can donate. "The blood group should be compatible (0 group can donate to any patient and AB can accept from any
donor). Rh has no role," says Dr Ajit K Huilgol, Chief Transplant Surgeon, KANTI, Columbia Asia, Yeswanthpur. As per the Indian laws governing trans-
plantation, all donors have to appear before a government-appointed Authori- sation Committee to get a clearance to donate a kidney. A patient can also get a kidney from a 'brain-dead, heart-beating' cadaver. This procedure is known as cadaver transplant. "You may register for a cadaver transplant, if you have no related donor," says Dr Huilgol. "But remember, a cadaver kidney may take several years to procure." Organ sales are banned in India.

After checking for blood group compatibility, a lymphocyte cross match test is done. A negative test result is required. This signifies that the antibodies in the patient's blood will not attack the donor's kidney. Prior to transplant, a complete check-up is done on the donor to ensure that he/ she is perfectly healthy at the time of donation, and that he/she will continue to be healthy after donation.

Following the surgery, the patient is taken to a specialised, isolated post- transplant unit where one-to-one nursing is provided to minimise the risk of cross-infection. The patient is closely monitored to ensure that the new organ is accepted by the body and optimum immunosuppressant medication is administered. "The advent of immuno- suppressants like Cyclosporine and Ta- crolimus have helped to push the success rates up and minimise chances of rejection of the donor kidney," says Dr Huilgol. Most patients are discharged on the fifth day. They are advised to follow hygienic habits strictly to prevent any infection risk. Most patients can get back to work between 4-12 weeks. They can resume sex life in about 2 to 3 months post transplant. Patients have to
visit for follow-up check ups and be on medication for life.


• The team has performed over 1700 renal transplants-including multiple artery transplants and double ureter transplants- more than any other centre in India.
• It boasts 92% one year survival rate and 80% five year survival rate-comparable to some of the best centres in the world.
• It was the first in India to use the latest international formulation of Cyclosporine- NEORAL-the prime life-saving drug after transplants.
• The centre has the distinction of having the world's oldest donor (85 years) and a 75 year old recipient who's still leading a healthy life. ,
• It conducted the State's first double kidney cadaver transplant. The expertise of the team has been used to set up transplant centres in Jalandhar, Punjab and Dhaka, Bangladesh.
• It has been invited to help set up transplant and dialysis centres in Lagos, Myanmar and Fiji.


The vast experience of the team: The excellence is born over 30 years’ hands-on experience. “Even a notice may conduct a transplant, but experience especially matters in complicated case,” says Dr. Sundar.
The infrastructure of this centre: The team is supported by excellent diagnostic facilities, state-of-the-art equipment and expertise of para medical staff.
Smooth management: “The efficient legal support team and experienced transplant coordinators ensure as hassle-free a transplant as possible,” says Dr. Sundar.

Contact details:
Columbia Asia Referral Hospital, Yeshwanthpur, Bengaluru
Phone 080 39898969 website :

Monday, August 30, 2010

When Your body Screams No!

When your immune system turn on itself, there is a war within the body. Stay safe and on the top of auto-immune disorders with this valuable users guide.

What if a police officer attacks you instead of protecting you? Or if, instead of getting the bad guys, he decides to put you behind bars?

This is exactly what happens when your body's immune system mistakenly turns on your own healthy organs and attacks them, resulting in autoimmune disorders. When the attack is on a single organ system such diseases are called 'organ-specific' autoimmune diseases (e.g., type 1 diabetes), whereas when the attack is more widespread and affects many organs the diseases are termed as 'systemic' autoimmune diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis). Your immune system may also react to a foreign substance that it normally would ignore (akin to a cop arresting an infant) resulting in an immune reaction commonly termed as an 'allergy'. Here are some major autoimmune disorders and how to cope with them.

Diagnosing this disorder can be complicated as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) symptoms tend to vary from patient to patient, are unpredictable, and follow an up and down course.

Lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease wherein your body's immune system attacks various organs including the joints, skin, kidneys, blood cells, heart and lungs, making it a potentially life-threatening illness. "While lupus is quite rare (affects 1 in 40,000 people), it is a dramatic disease," says Dr AN Malaviya, consultant rheumatologist, A&R Clinic and visiting senior consultant rheumatologist, Indian Spine Injuries Centre, New Delhi.

“Lupus affects young women between 13 and 40 years," says Dr BG Dharmanand, HOD, rheumatology at Manipal Hospital, Bengaluru. "Environmental factors, family history, exposure to oestrogen and smoking, and viral infections are other common risk factors.”

These include arthritis, kidney problems, low platelet and WBC counts, psychosis (manic episodes), rashes on face, especially after-sun exposure, mouth sores, and swelling of the lung and heart lining.

This is difficult to diagnose. Doctors will order blood tests to measure your blood cell count, ESR, kidney and liver functions, and the presence of anti-nuclear antibodies (indicative of an autoimmune disease) as well as urine tests to detect increased protein or red blood cells. A false-positive syphilis test may also be indicative of lupus.

“About 10 to 15 years ago, the 5-year mortality rates were 80% . But with improved treatment options, 90% of patients survive for 20 years," says Dharmanand. Treatment includes immunosuppresants and immunomodulating agents like steroids. "There are many side effects of steroid use, so it is a matter of balancing the side effects of the drug and the disease symptoms,” adds Dharmanand.

Although joint pain and inflammation are the most visible symptoms, this disorder affects every organ in the body; treating it early and aggressively is the best way to tackle the disease.

"The name is a misnomer," says Malaviya. Although classified as an autoimmune musculo-skeletal disorder with most visible symptoms like joint pain/inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects every organ in the body. 'We have outstanding medication to treat RA nowadays," says Malaviya, who pioneered the field of
rheumatology in India in 1968 and is credited with discovering the novel applicability of low-dose methotrexate (LDMTX). It is the 'central anchor drug' for the treatment of RA.

Although the cause is unknown, RA is more common in women. Among the confirmed risk factors are gum disease (periodonitis) and smoking.

Early diagnosis is very crucial, “says Dharmanand. "Symptoms to watch out for include: joint pain and swelling, long-lasting early morning stiffness, fever, weight loss and fatigue.”

Diagnosis is arrived at after clinical examination of the patients and blood tests to detect
presence of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti- CCP) antibodies. A negative result for rheumatoid factor is not indicative of lack of the disease as this factor is detectable in only 75 to 80% patients.

There has been a “quiet revolution" in treating RA, states Malaviya. Besides LDMTX, other drugs prescribed may include non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), steroids, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDS), and immunosuppresants.

“An exciting new discovery is that smoking is a trigger for autoimmune genes to become active” - Dr AN Malaviya

This condition is characterised by relapses (when new symptoms appear) and remissions (when symptoms improve on their own).

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease in which your body's immune system destroys the protective covering on your nerves. This interferes with the communication between your brain and the rest of your body. This ultimately causes irreversible damage to the nerves themselves, which interferes with the functions that are controlled by the nervous system vision, speech, walking etc.

“Women are 1.5 to 2 times more likely to get the disease," says Dr BS Singhal, professor and head, Department of Neurology, Bombay Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciences, "and it manifests itself in younger people between 20 and 30 years of age.” Adds
Dr Apoorva Pauranik, professor of neurology, MGM Medical College, Indore, "Asian people are less at risk; it typically affects North Europeans." Genetics, infections, and the presence of other autoimmune conditions are also risk factors.

These include loss of vision in one eye, weakness/paralysis of legs, arms, head and neck muscles weakness, tremors, fatigue, and difficulty in swallowing or speaking.

The availability of the MRI has revolutionised diagnosis and treatment. "You can spot lesions in the brain very early in the disease," says Singhal. Other tests include electrical tests that document the velocity of impulses from various parts of the body to the brain and a spinal tap.

In many cases, minor symptoms resolve themselves without any treatment. Treatments to control symptoms include immuno-modulating drugs like interferon and glatiramer which slow down the appearance of symptoms and steroids and mitoxantrone to suppress the immune system. However, interferons are very expensive (Rs 25,000 to 30,000 a month) and therefore not accessible to many. Currently, many drugs are in trial and the outlook is optimistic.

Although most common in children, this form of diabetes (also known as juvenile onset diabetes) is not easily recognised.

Type 1 diabetes is a condition where your pancreas produces very little or no insulin, the hormone needed to process sugar to produce energy.

Risk factors include family history, genetics, geographical location, exposure to certain viruses, as well as dietary factors like low Vitamin D levels. This disorder is commonly seen in young children (peak age of onset is 12 or 13 years) and in women.
“Onset is more dramatic, and if not diagnosed, this condition can potentially be fatal,” says Dr Sanjay Reddy, medical director and consultant, Bangalore Diabetes Centre. "In a lot of cases, the diagnosis is made when the child presents acute complications." Stay vigilant for symptoms like weight loss, excessive urination, hunger, blurred vision, fatigue, etc.
Diagnosis is primarily done based on patient history and age. Abnormal blood sugar levels show up in a random blood sugar test and a glycated haemoglobin (A1C) test. Specific blood tests to confirm diagnosis include checking for the presence of GAD antibody, islet cell antibody, and insulin auto-antibodies.

Life-long treatment with insulin is the only option available currently. Patients are also advised to eat right, exercise, and diligently monitor their blood glucose levels.

This autoimmune disorder is characterised by chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland leading to either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

Thyroiditis is a condition wherein the immune cells attack the thyroid gland causing inflammation. This chronic inflammation leads to thyroid cell damage. Depending on the rapidity of the damage, a patient can develop hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

Various factors including heredity, gender (women are more susceptible), age (middleaged women), and viral infections playa role. "There is a 50% concurrence in
identical twins indicating that the trigger is 50% genetic and 50% environmental," states Dharmanand.

Generalised symptoms may include fever, weight loss, puffiness and joint pain. Typical hypothyroidism symptoms include constipation, weight gain, lethargy and dry skin. Typical hyperthyroidism symptoms include cardiac problems, weight loss, diarrhoea and tremors.

Thyroid function tests and blood tests are normally done.

Hypothyroidism is treated with synthetic thyroid hormones. Treatment for hyperthyroidism includes drugs to reduce the effect of excessive thyroid hormones. For example, beta blockers may be prescribed to reduce the impact on the heart. Surgery or radiotherapy to destroy the thyroid gland is also an option.

What are allergies?
Allergies are another form of immune system error which occur when your immune system reacts to a foreign substance (allergen) such as pollen, dust, food, or any other allergen that it would otherwise typically ignore. The resulting symptoms can range from minor irritation to a potentially life-threateninq emergency.

Common allergens
• Dust, pollen, mould
• Penicllin-based antibiotics
• Insect bites (bees, wasps)
• Eggs, nuts, dairy products, wheat

• Skin test
• Blood tests

Avoid the allergen
Take steroids, antihistamines, decongestants to relieve symptoms
Purified allergen shots
Epinephrine shots in emergencies

Wednesday, August 25, 2010

Juvenile diabetes

Juvenile diabetes is one of the most common chronic conditions to affect children all over the world and each day, over 200 children are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Although Diabetes is a metabolic disorder, it can have psychosocial effect, if not handled in the right manner. As a long term condition that affects day-to-day living, diabetes can be particularly stressful on the child and parents. Newly detected Diabetes impacts all aspects of a child's life and its management requires the parents to tackle challenges at multiple levels physical, psychological, social and educational. If not effectively addressed, a spectrum of psychological issues ranging from lack of confidence to severe depression may result. However with proper training, learning about diabetes and making small changes in life style as a family, you can live a fairly normal life.

In this article, we examine the need for counseling and the various counseling options that a parent has to help a child and themselves deal with such issues.

Counseling the diabetic child
A child diagnosed with diabetes is suddenly thrust into the unenviable position of dealing ith a chronic condition. Starting from dietary restrictions to insulin injections, the child has to come to terms with the all-pervasive impact of this condition. As a result, the child ay suffer from stress. Resentment, fear of being mocked at by peers, a fear of being branded as a 'sick' or 'ill' person, and anger at parental control on diet and activities are ome of the feelings that a child may experience. If allowed to build up, such feelings can have a debilitating effect on the child's mental and physiological health.

Parents can do a lot towards helping the child cope with diabetes. In fact, the attitude of parents plays a great role in forming the child's response to the condition. Paying enough attention to the psychological needs of the child can be as important as providing medication. By following these simple do's and don'ts, parents can empower the child as he/she work on responding to the condition.

Do not be over-protective. Many parents confuse precaution with apprehension and cross the fine line between being protective and over-protective. Understand that diabetes need not stop your child from leading a healthy, active life. Do not deter the child from participating in active sports and games in the mistaken belief that your child has to be protected.
2. Do listen and watch out for cues to your child's state of mind. Loss of appetite, sudden loss of interest in studies, reluctance to go to school, a listless attitude are some signs that your child needs help in coping with the condition.
3. Do not refer to the condition as a disease.It only helps to firm up an opinion that diabetes is to be feared and dreaded.
4. Do discuss the condition, its causes, treatment and precautions to be followed. An understanding about the physiological conditions and changes associated with diabetes will alleviate your child's fears about this condition and will equip him/her with the requisite knowledge to tackle it.
5. Do not express worries about the child's future, especially within earshot of the child.
6. Do not treat the child differently from his/ her siblings. This will only make your child more conscious about his/her condition.
7. Do take every opportunity to stress that diabetes is treatable.
8. Do focus on success stories of fellow diabetics from your child's area of interest - for example, successful cricketers, or athletes who are diabetics. Your child will profit from such role models.
9. Letting some one know about the fact that your child is diabetic should occur as naturally as divulging any other personal fact about yourself. If someone were to notice your child taking a shot and wondered what it was or why it was so, that would be a reason to explain! Don't express being diabetic as a negative thing or something that defines a person. Let it come naturally but definitely don't hide it. Be short, precise and positive while telling about it.
10. Be realistic in the goals set of your child.
11. Do set a personal example. Follow a healthy regimen of diet and exercise yourself to make it easy for your child to adhere to his.
12. Be understanding during the instance that your child deviates from the prescribed routine – your child is still a child and there may be occasions when he she feels the need to bypass the routine.

Counseling partners and caretakers
Juvenile diabetes impacts the entire family, not just the affected child. The parents of a diabetic child are also subject to stress, although for different reasons. In the case of parents, possible stressors are a fear of societal ridicule, apprehension about a girl child's marital prospects, worry about the child's longevity and future and sometimes guilt on not being able to protect the child from this condition. Counselling of parents and caretakers can go a long way in helping them tackle the emotional impact of this condition. While child counselling sessions help to assure the child, reinstate confidence and also infuse the belief that diabetes is a manageable condition, parental counseling seeks to allay the parents' fear regarding their child's future.

External sources of counselling
Depending on the extent of the psychological impact, counselling of the child is therefore not just desirable but even required. Although parents may be able to provide suchadvice, external help and counseling can effectively supplement the efforts of parents.

There are various counseling options available.
These are :
Family physician: The family physician is often the first line of support. The family physician will have an intimate knowledge of the child, his/her interests, and temperament. Further, the family physician enjoys the trust of the parents and the child alike. A talk with the family physician may be a timely confidence-booster.

Friends and family: Advice from friends and family, especially fellow-patients can also be very effective. A family member or friend who is successful and happy, despite such a diagnosis can be a very effective role model.

Online and offline support groups: Online support groups for both children and parents alike, provide a global network of support and also resources that the parents and child can tap into. Online support groups overcome the barriers of distance and allow parents to communicate, share and get answers to mutual concerns on bringing up a diabetic child.
Professional counseling: Where the emotional impact is deeper, professional counseling is not just desirable but required. Where thepsychological impact has resulted in mild or severe Depression,advice from a psychiatric professional is mandatory.

Dealing with diabetes is not just about taking medication, it is about dealing with its invisible and intangible effects. Counselling is one of themost potent tools that parents have to successflly manage the psychological consequences of this condition.
For stories on successful role models for children and more tips to young people on self management, coping and living with diabetes please visit

Tuesday, August 24, 2010

High levels of blood sugar

High levels of blood sugar, especially over long periods of time, can result in complications of other body functions. Uncontrolled diabetes can also lead to long term complications such as heart disease, skin problems, digestive problems, erectile dysfunction, kidney, eye complications and teeth and gum problems. This does not mean that the prognosis is dire for people with diabetes - by fallowing a few simple guidelines and taking necessary precautions, these complications can be successfully prevented.

Typical complications and their prevention
The following are some of the most likely complications from an untreated or neglected diabetic condition and tips for their prevention.

Heart disease and stroke:
Diabetes contributes to a thickening of the blood vessels and consequently, problems with blood circulation leading to a higher risk of cardiac problems and stroke.

1. Aggressively control blood sugar.
2. Proactively monitor and control modifiable risk factors for heart disease such as blood pressure and high cholesterol.
3. Quit smoking.
4. Consult your doctor on whether a daily dose of aspirin and statins will help you.

Diabetic nephropathy:
Diabetic nephropathy is a progressive kidney disease caused by damage to renal tissue due to high blood sugar.

Undergo the blood and urine tests recommended by your doctor. Doctors usually ask for Micro albumin urea at the first step to assess if there is damage to the kidneys. Other than this Creatinine blood tests, which assess kidney function and urine tests to check for the presence of protein in the urine are also asked.
Control your blood pressure.
Restrict protein intake if advised by your doctor. Aggressively control blood sugar.

Eye problems:
Diabetic retinopathy (Damage to the retina -the lining of the interior of the eye), cataract and glaucoma (Increased pressure in the eyes) are some of the eye problems that a person with diabetes may develop.

1. Have a comprehensive check of your vision every year.
2. Rigorously control blood sugar and blood pressure.
3. If you are pregnant it is very important to have an eye exam during your first 3 months of pregnancy.

Peripheral neuropathy:
Peripheral neuropathy affects sensations especially in the legs and feet. Since a person
with diabetes has a decreased ability to perceive pain many injuries can go unnoticed. Similarly, because of difficulty in perceiving changes in position, you may have difficulty in bearing weight properly and are at risk for developing calluses and ulcers on your feet.

Prevention :
This is one of the most easily preventable complications of diabetes. Ensure that you diligently check your feet everyday for ulcers cuts or sores.
See your doctor in case of any foot injury or ulcer. Do not try to treat them yourself.
Use footwear that cover your feet - do not walk barefoot or use open toed shoes or slippers.
Aggressively control blood sugar.

Skin problems:
Some of the skin problems that may be associated with diabetes are candidiasis, diabetic
dermopathy or skin spots, digital sclerosis, rashes and blisters, and fungal infections.

Do not ignore spots, rashes or blisters-get them checked by your doctor.
Follow high standards of personal hygiene to prevent fungal infections.
Aggressively control blood sugar.

Other complications:
In addition to the above people with uncontrolled diabetes are also at higher risk for disorders such as gastro paresis, sexual dysfunction and depression.

While some of the complications associated with diabetes are life-threatening, there is no need for undue alarm. On the other hand, the possibility of such complications is one more reason for timely diagnosis and treatment. To summarize, follow these simple guidelines to lower the risks of developing such complications.

1. Stay committed : Stay committed to your diabetic care regimen. Regularly monitor your blood sugar and take medication as advised by your doctor.
2. Exercise regularly : Regular exercise goes a long way in staying off heart disease and stroke. Start and then adhere to an exercise program of your choice.
3. Maintain your blood pressure and cholesterol within acceptable limits. Ensure that the blood pressure and cholesterol levels are within the range acceptable for your age.
4. Have a comprehensive health and eye checkup every year : Do not skip your annual physical examination. Early detection is the key to the prevention of many of the diabetes - related complications.
5. Check your feet : People with diabetes need to examine their feet everyday for sores, blisters and cuts. If untreated, even a small cut can develop into serious complications.
6. Drink responsibly : If you do drink then keep it to a minimum and never drink alcohol on an empty stomach as this could lead to hypoglycemia.
7. Quit smoking: Smoking increases the risk of various diabetes complications, especially heart disease and stroke.
8. Ensure personal and dental hygiene : People with diabetes are at higher risk for gum and skin infections.

It is vitally important that one is not just aware of the complications of uncontrolled diabetes but also take the first steps towards its management. The risk of diabetes-related complications can be effectively mitigated by following the simple steps outlined above. More importantly have a positive attitude and remember that leading a healthy life is in your hands. Take charge now for a healthier tomorrow.

Sunday, July 18, 2010

The govts in Dark

The Govt of India and Govt of West Bengal are determined to remain in dark. But they can not avert danger and disturbance by closing their eyes, or silencing the friendly voice of warning. The warning voice if silenced, the catastrophe will come.

Thursday, July 15, 2010

The punishment to the children

The Government of India is wasting most of its time on useless matters. The relation between Parents and their children is emotional and deep family attachment. Parents look after the interest of their children and take care of their health, education, well-being and future. If they don't control the children, they will be useless creatures for the country and society. The Govt of India has no business to interfere amongst the parents and their children.The punishment to the children is essential for their betterment.

Friendship, true friendship

Friendship. In a lifetime true friendship happens only once. You have read and heard a lot about love between a man and a woman, but I know of no attachment stronger than that formed between two open-hearted and enthusiastic men in their youth.

Tuesday, July 13, 2010

Good Things, the British Left Behind in India

British deserve to be complimented for integrating all the ethnically diverse but culturally similar principalities in the South Asian sub-continent into one nation. Today we call it, India.

Within ten years of the British takeover in 1857, the country had been pacified and rule of law & justice established. People’s confidence in the new master soared. T.B. Macauly"s education system began to pay dividends. Lower rank administrative jobs were filled with English educated Hindus and they became the backbone of the Raj. Early freedom fighter like Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Gopal Krishan Gokhale made resurgent Hindu power as the basis of their self-rule demand.

With the return of most foreign soldiers from India, Very cleverly the British selected politically reliable communities. They designated them the “Martial Classes”. The newly organized army safeguarded the Indian border and also provided the internal security. This highly trained army became the backbone of future India. Today, British have been gone for sixty years but the Indian Army still follows the British organization, training and fighting methods.

By early 1890s, the civil and military organization was as follows. The British “Sahib” sat at the top, but allowed Hindu clerk to run things for him. Judicial system was exclusively British and very fair. Young men of aristocratic background were educated in England in the intricacies of the English judicial system. Back home they provided the necessary legal basis for the justice system

In one hundred years of the British Crown rule over India until 1947, they introduced the British legal and justice system, organized a formidable civil service, provided modern military training and organization to a largely medieval army, re-organized the antiquated tax system which had continued since Emperor Akbar (circa 1600), set-up an export and import system largely for their own benefit but never the less as a basis for future trade, built one of the world’s greatest water irrigation system in Pakistani Punjab, created a rail and road network to facilitate transportation but also to feed the growing import/export trade, extended the T B Macaulay’s education system to include universities and colleges of higher learning and introduced the western dress code which has become universal in India.

British also failed miserably in few areas like food grain output, which resulted in huge famines, killed the industry and commerce for their own benefit, failed to include social welfare in their agenda, took anything of value out of India and left India on tender hooks when they finally vacated the seat of power.

India"s eternal thanks will always be due for all the good things the British left behind. On the contrary the economic devastation they perpetuated over an otherwise prosperous nation cannot be forgotten.

Wednesday, June 23, 2010

Myths and Legends of Tea

There are many interesting myths and legends associated with tea. There are stories about tea being plucked from elephant back and tea being plucked by monkies. When one sees rather short-in-height tea bushes planted in a very orderly fashion, it is hard to understand as to why tea had to be plucked while atop an elephant. The truth is that if left to itself, the tea bush can grow into a tall tea tree. The Tea Research Station at Tocklai, near jorhat, has some very old and very tall tea trees. A visit to the institute can be very interesting affair. Tea plucked by Monkies? Believe it or not.

Sunday, June 20, 2010

Why Suicide

When we were young, we were not worried. Now I find every boy is in hurry and in tension, in depression. I am unable to see any reason for Suicide, except mental pressure, the competition, and fastlife and easy availabilty of suicide material and circumstances. I am researching and I will make efforts to change the situations, which compell our young generation to go for suicide. If you have any suggestions, send me.

Wednesday, June 09, 2010

Strong roots eventually yield great success.

The naked eye suggested that the tree wasn't growing, in truth, it definitely was. But the expansion was below ground rather than above ground.

While the other trees were reaching for the sky, this special tree was quietly working on its foundation, ensuring its roots were strong and its base was secure. And once done, it outperformed every tree around it.

Business and life has taught me so many lessons. And so has nature. And one of the best is that leadership takes time. You might think that other people and other organizations are so far ahead of you that you'll never catch up. But please be patient. Tend to your roots. Do exceptionally great work. Build deep relationships. Invent and innovate daily. And Lead Without a Title.

Nature is always fair. And eventually, you will win.

Tuesday, June 08, 2010

Corruption in India

Corruption in India

It is a fact that the problem of corruption in India has assumed enormous and embarrassing proportions in recent years, although it has been with us for decades. If all the scams of the last five years are added up, they are likely to rival and exceed the British colonial loot of India of about a trillion dollars.

Ms Mayawati who is Chief Minister of the most densely inhabited state, is calmed when an intelligence agency probe is scrapped. The multi-million dollars fodder scam by another former chief minister wielding enormous power is put in cold storage. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh chairs over this kind of unparalleled loot.

Investigations into the shadowy financial deals of the Indian cricket league have revealed a web of transactions across tax havens like Switzerland, the Virgin Islands, Mauritius and Cyprus.The name of one Hassan Ali of Pune is mentioned as operating with his wife a one-billion-dollar illegal Swiss account with the sanction of the Indian regime. The former chief minister of Jharkhand, Madhu Koda, who was reported to have funds in various tax havens that were partly used to buy mines in Liberia.

If the Indian Prime Minister knows nothing about these scandals, he is ignorant of ground realities and does not deserve to be Prime Minister. If he does, is he a collaborator in crime?

The day will come when the have-nots will hit the streets. In a way, it seems to have already started with the monstrous acts of the Maoists. The drumbeats for these rebellions are going to get louder and louder as our leaders refuse to listen to the voices of the people. Eventually, it will lead to a revolution that will spill to streets across the whole of India.

Subsidy to rich on Petrol

I wish Mamta Banerjee all the best. But still writers Building is one year away and need hardwork to achieve target. It is sad, that she don't understand economics, otherwise why she is opposing price rise of Petrol, which is used by rich people. If Govt of India is paying subsidy on Petrol. This subsidy is going to rich people, the money of poor and rural people going into the pockets of rich people.

Monday, June 07, 2010

Land Reforms in West Bengal and Left Front

I would like to tell you about Land Reforms by Muslims and British. Land reforms means right to property, cultivation and perpetual ownership, so the Land owner is encouraged to develop the land and get more production and output from Land.But what Left front did was to take away land from Landowners and gave right to agri- labour, called ADHEDAR in Bengal. They were cultivating on developed land of Agriculturists (LAND OWNERS) not as agri-Labour, but on contact basis i.e. a short of partnership with landowners. Now Landowners lost interest (or made to lose interest ) in land, the poor agri-labour has no money to finance Agriculture. Previously Land owners used to finance for land development, seeds, fertilisers and pesticides. Now agri-labour can't find funds for this finance, which is the back bone of agriculture. He fell into the hands of moneylenders, who charged interest from 3 to 5% per month. Nationalised banks were not financing these poor agri-labours.

So with Land reforms of Left, poor agri-labours suffered, most of time in the hands of moneylenders, crop failure, shortage of agri imputs. Our agriculture production also suffered, we have no food security now, per capita availability of food grains came down, resulting in price rise for both urban and rural populations.

Thanks to Left front for their good work for the people of West Bengal.

Saturday, June 05, 2010

Verdict against Left

West Bengal Municipality Poll results are a verdict on CPI (M) Party - its modes of functioning and its attitude to power and governance. The Left Parties and the Trinamul Congress ran their campaigns on the assumption that this election was a dress rehearsal for the bigger battle to control Writer's Building in 2011.

The people of West Bengal rejected Left first in Panchayat, then in Loksabha, and now in Municipal bodies. It is a total verdict against Left.

Saturday, May 29, 2010

Don't use bottled water.

Don't use bottled water.
It will save environment and save money also. But due to excessive use of Pesticides & chemicals in India, water in India is so much polluted that we are not convinced that drinking water is good for drinking. Moreover present bottled water available in India is only distilled polluted water of India, having chemicals, bad for health. The immune system of Indian population is so weak, that we fall sick, because of many reasons and we held water responsible for our all ills and problems. I suggest that to improve our immune system, we should follow Baba Ramdev's Yoga.

Friday, May 28, 2010

Heart and Diabetes

Heart and Diabetes

A person with diabetes is more likely to develop heart problems condition than others and tends to develop it at an earlier age than others. Studies suggest that the chances of middle-aged people with Type 2 diabetes getting a heart attack is as high as someone who has already had an heart attack. Women who have not gone through menopause usually have less risk of heart disease than men of the same age. But women of all ages with diabetes are at an increased risk of heart disease.

Why are people with diabetes at risk of heart disease?

Uncontrolled diabetes can cause damage to many parts of the body, including blood vessels resulting in coronary artery disease. This damage makes it easier for fatty deposits to form in arteries and cause narrowing or blockages that can lead to heart attacks or strokes. Along with diabetes, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, smoking, lack of exercise and obesity also lead to atherosclerosis (narrowing of arteries).

Those with diabetes are likely to suffer from what is called "silent ischemia" or silent heart attack, which accounts for 25-30 percent of heart attacks. It is Termed "silent" as the patient gets a heart attack with no chest pain. People with diabetes usually don't feel chest pain because of nerve damage caused by poorly controlled diabetes.. The symptoms of silent ischemia are generally ignored or passed off as indigestion or stomach upset, vague dizziness or weakness.

What can one do to prevent or delay heart disease and stroke?

Even if a person with diabetes is at high risk for heart disease and stroke, he/she can help keep his/her heart and blood vessels healthy. A person with with diabetes can do so by taking the following steps to prevent heart diseases.

1. Keep blood sugar level under control. Balanced diet, regular exercise, right medicine and monitoring are essential to keep blood sugar levels under control.

2. Make sure that your diet is balanced. A dietician can help you get it right. Food with high fiber may help lower blood cholesterol. Whole-grain breads and cereals, dried beans and peas, fruits and vegetables are rich sources of fiber. Also cut down on saturated fat because it raises blood cholesterol level. Saturated fat is found in meats, poultry skin, butter, dairy products with fat, such as palm and coconut oil. Keep the cholesterol in your diet to less than 300 milligrams a day. Cholesterol is found in meat, dairy products and eggs. You need to keep the amount of transfat, a type of fat in food that raises blood cholesterol in diet to a minimum. Limit your intake of samosas, vadas, namkeens and chats.

3. Make physical activities part of your routine. Being physically active can be good for everyone's health. Like eating a healthy diet, exercise will also help keep blood sugar level normal and can lower risk of heart disease. Aim for at least 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week. Think of ways to increase physical activity, such as taking the stairs instead of the elevator, playing with your child and walking into nearby grocery shop instead of taking a vehicle. If a person with diabetes hasn't been physically active recently, it is necessary to visit a doctor for a check-up before starting an exercise program.

4. Reach and maintain a healthy body weight. Consult a dietitian for help in planning meals and lowering the fat and calorie content of your diet to reach and maintain a healthy weight. Aim for a loss of not more than 0.5 to 0.9 kilograms a week.

5. Quit Smoking. Smoking is bad for everyone but it's even worse for people with diabetes because it damages the blood vessels. If a person has diabetes and is also a smoker, the risk of getting heart disease is doubled.

6. Ask your doctor whether you should take aspirin. Studies have shown that taking a low dose of aspirin every day can help reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke. However, aspirin is not safe for everyone. Your doctor can tell you whether taking aspirin is right for you and exactly how much to take.

You can keep track of the ABCs of diabetes to make sure your treatment is working. A stands for HbA1C (A1C is a test that measures blood glucose control over last 3 months), B for blood pressure and C for cholesterol. Talk with your health care provider about the best targets for you.

Have an HbA1C test at least twice a Year. It shows your' average blood" glucose level over the past 3 months. Insulin is recommended if HbA1C is more than 9.5% at the time of diagnosis or more than 7.5% even after taking Oral Drugs.

Control of the ABCs of diabetes can reduce your risk for heart disease and stroke. If your blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels aren't on target, ask your doctor what changes in diet, activity, and medications can help you reach these goals. By taking these simple steps, every person including people with diabetes can enjoy a healthy and long life.

Q. Can diabetes be cured ?
Diabetes cannot be cured, but can definitely be controlled. People with diabetes can lead a healthy life if their diabetes is well controlled (i.e. when their blood sugar levels are 90-130 mg/dl at fasting and less than 180 mg/dl 2hrs after meals) and other parameters like lipid profile, blood pressure and weight are in prescribed limits.

Q. Can I include fruits in my meal?
All people with diabetes should have at least 2 servings of fruit per day. One serving of fruit should contain 15 grams of carbohydrates. The size of the serving depends on the carbohydrate content of the fruit. The advantage of eating a low-carbohydrate fruit is that you can consume a larger portion. But whether you eat a low-carb or high-carb fruit, as long as the serving size contains 15 grams of carbohydrates, the effect on your blood sugar is the same.

The following fruit servings contain about 15 grams of carbohydrates: 1 Small Apple = 1/2 medium banana =1 1/2 slice mango = 1 1/4 cup watermelon = 1 Guava =15 Grapes = 1 Oranqee = l Peach = 1/2 pomegranate =1 kiwi = 3 Dates = 1/2 chikoo = 2-3 slice of papaya = 3 Plums = 1 1/2 slice pineapple.

So, a person with diabetes can eat any fruit, but the quantity should be measured.

Monday, May 24, 2010

Knowledge of Hindi is needed


As per your standards of successful people, I am definitely yet to
achieve that success.


Nidhi's aim is to be a big business woman like all Baid girls. ( BAID GIRLS ARE INTELLIGENT, HARD WORKERS, HELP HUSBAND IN ALL MANNERS, EDUCATE THEIR CHILDREN.)

Anways, if there is anything that we can do here in Mumbai for you, as
personal or business related, please do give us the opportunity to

Friday, May 21, 2010

Learn Hindi properly for success

Our new generation, starting from 1970, started reading in English medium or Convent Schools, are good in English, but weak in Hindi. Many of this generation migrated to UK & USA, or joined highly paid jobs in India, are successful. But rest of this generation (My calculation more than 80%), are still in India, doing small business or employed with middle size companies or individuals, cannot be treated as successful. If they had studied in Hindi medium Schools like us, with the knowledge of Hindi and English both, they would have scaled bigger heights. I am not cricizing anybody. But I find their Hindi weak. They can not write in Hindi. This generation should take initiative to read and write hindi, to be successful. I wish all our childrens, studying in English Medium schools success.

Tuesday, May 18, 2010

Fighting is human nature

Since beginning,human beings are fighting with each other for power, position, property and land. When we see history, every village was having a strongman, defeating other people, even supported by some strongman. That's why in India, there were more than 1000 Rajas. Under each Raja, there were tens of Jagirdars, Jamindars, Village headman etc. There used to be everyday fight for supermacy and position, between the Haves and havenots. Same thing is taking place now. In North Bengal, Writers Building (left front ) have lost control, so Gorkhaland, Kamtapuri, Coochbehri, Adivashi and some others are fighting amongst them. Fighting will give them nothing, they will looser always.