Saturday, October 09, 2010



1. Kidneys: The key functions
2. 10 Critical functions of Kidneys
3. Ways to keep your Kidneys healthy………
4. What happens when kidney fails
5. Detect Kidney Disease early
6. Symptoms of kidney disease
7. Kidney Diseases
8. Treatments of Kidney Diseases
9. Dialysis Methods
10. Kidney Transplantation


The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. The kidneys are sophisticated reprocessing machines. Everyday, a person's kidneys process about 200 quarts of blood to sift out about 2 quarts of waste products and extra water. The wastes and extra water become urine, which flows to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine until releasing it through urination.

Wastes in the blood come from the normal breakdown of active tissues, such as muscles, and from food. The body uses food for energy and self- repairs. After the body has taken what it needs from food, wastes are sent to the blood. If the kidneys did not remove them, these wastes would build up in the blood and damage the body.

The actual removal of wastes occurs in tiny units inside the kidneys called nephrons. Each kidney has about a million nephrons. In the nephron, a glomerulus, which is a tiny blood vessel, or capillary, intertwines with a tiny urine-collecting tube called a tubule. The glomerulus acts as a filtering unit, or sieve, and keeps normal proteins and cells in the bloodstream, allowing extra fluid and wastes to pass through. A complicated chemical exchange takes place, as waste materials and water leave the blood and enter the urinary system.

In addition to removing wastes, the kidneys release three important hormones:

• Erythropoietin, or EPO, which stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells.
• Renin, which regulates blood pressure.
• Calcitriol, the active form of D, which help to maintain calcium for bones and for normal chemical balance in body.


1. Filter 200 liters of blood a day, removing two liters of toxins, wastes and water

2. Regulate the body's water balance

3. Regulate blood pressure by controlling fluid levels and making the hormone that causes blood vessels to constrict

4. Support healthy bones & tissues by producing the active form of vitamin D

5. Produce the hormone that stimulates bone marrow to manufacture red blood cells.

6. Keep blood minerals in balance.

7. Keep electrolytes in balance .

8. Regulate blood acid levels.

9. Remove drugs from the blood.

10. Retrieve essential nutrients so that the body can reabsorb them.


Here are some simple changes in lifestyle which you can easily adopt:

1. Keep fit and active. This may sound like a clichi, keeping fit help to reduce your blood pressure and therefore reduces the risk of Chronic Kidney Disease. The concept "on the move for kidney health" is a world-wide collective march involving the public, celebrities and professionals moving across a public area by walking, running, cycling. Why not join them- by whatever means that you prefer.

2. Although many people may be aware that high blood pressure can lead to a stroke or heart attack, few know that it can also cause kidney damage. We should educate people to "Keep the Pressure Down", highlighting the importance of keeping blood pressure low, as it can be a key symptom and cause of Chronic Kidney Disease. If you already have high blood pressure to protect yourself from kidney disease monitor your blood pressure regularly, maintain a low fat, low salt diet and keep a healthy body weight

3. Do not smoke: Cigarette smoking slows the flow of blood to the kidneys. When less blood reaches the kidneys, it impairs their ability to function properly. Smoking also increases the risk of kidney cancer by about 50 percent.

4. Do not take over-the-counter pills on a regular basis: Common drugs such non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are known to cause kidney damage and disease if taken regularly. Such medications probably do not pose significant
danger if your kidneys are relatively healthy and you use them for emergencies only, but if you are dealing with chronic pain, such as arthritis, work with your doctor to find a way to control your pain without putting your kidneys at risk.

5. About half of those people who have diabetes develop early signs of kidney damage, so it is important for people with diabetes to have regular tests to check their kidney functions. It is important to keep control of blood sugar levels with the help of doctors or pharmacists.

6. Checking kidney function must be a high priority for people considered to be at risk of kidney disease. Early detection is essential and allows suitable treatment before kidney damage or deterioration manifests itself through other complications.

7. Keep your weight in check: This can help prevent diabetes, heart
disease and other conditions associated with chronic Kidney Disease.

8. Know your kidney function: If anyone in your family has suffered from Kidney disease, it is particularly important to get your kidney function checked.

It is important to encourage everyone to learn more about their amazing kidneys and to raise awareness of the fact that that kidney disease is common, harmful, but treatable.


Just one kidney, working at 20% capacity, can keep a person healthy. Below that level, you begin to feel tired or weak, and lose your appetite. This is because toxic wastes starts to build up in the blood, Fluid collects, causing tissue swelling, lung congestion and high blood pressure. To stay healthy, a method is needed to replace lost kidney function.


Kidney disease is often 'silent', causing few symptoms, especially in the early stages. If left unchecked the disease can progress or lead to kidney failure. It can severely impact quality of life and ultimately can cost lives. Very often it comes along with other health threatening conditions, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

If kidney disease is detected early, appropriate treatment can delay or even stop chronic kidney disease. It is easy to detect early signs of kidney problems by using simple tests performed by your General Practitioner.


• Frequent headache and urination.
• Itching.
• Poor appetite and fatigue.
• Burning sensation during urination.
• Nausea and vomiting.
• Swollen / numb hands or feet.
• Darkened skin.

Kidney disease is any disorder that affects how the kidneys function. Some of these disorders include:

• Diabetes.
• Hypertension.
• Nephritis
• Infection.
• Injury.
• Stones.


Treatment of kidney disease is complex and depends on the type of disease, the underlying cause and duration of the disease. It can be treated by:

1) Medicines: Healthy kidneys remove waste products of metabolism, but when kidneys' function diminishes, these go up in the blood, as indicated by raised creatinine levels. Early detection leads to early treatment, preventing it from advancing to more serious stages. Diabetes is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease, followed by hypertension. See your physician regularly and follow the prescribed drug treatment to control blood sugar levels and blood pressure. Treatments for conditions which can lead to kidney disease include numerous
prescription drugs and treatment protocols.
2) Dialysis: Kidney dialysis is a medical treatment used to filter out waste products from the blood. Dialysis treatment permits the patients to live relatively normal live within the limitations of their disease.


Peritoneal & Haemodialysis. Appropriate method is administered to the patient in consultation with medical professionals.

Peritonial Dialysis:
This form of dialysis occurs inside the body. It uses your peritoneal membrane (serous membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities) in the abdomen as the filter, For this treatment, a tube called a catheter is surgically placed through the wall of your abdomen.

Blood is pumped outside the body to an artificial kidney machine. The machine cleanses the blood and returns it to the body. Access to IV is made by fistula (permanent abnormal passageway between two organs in the body or between an organ and the
exterior of the body) or graft. A fistula provides access to blood vessels.


Transplantation is one of the solutions to kidney failure. During this operation, a healthy donated kidney is placed deep under your skin near your hip bone. In some cases, the non working kidneys may be removed to control infection or high blood pressure.

Treat your kidneys right, and they should look after you!

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